Wheat, kaoliang sorghummillet, barley, soy beans and corn are grown in the north. Rice is the dominate crop in the south.
After reading this article you will learn about Soil: Introduction to Soil 2. Meaning of Soil 3. Soil is the surface layer of earth on which the human civilization depends for its existence. Actually soil represents the loose upper crust of the earth surface distinctly different from the underlying bed rock.
Its depth, colour, and composition vary from place to place, but all soils are common in consisting of inorganic mineral and organic matter, water, and gaseous phases.
Every soil is made up of a succession of layers, collectively known as soil-profile, reaching down to the parent material.
The soil-profile consists of two or more horizontal layers, called horizons. The soil horizon may vary in thickness, mineral composition, and structure; they are indicated by the letters A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, etc.
A1 horizon is the uppermost or surface layer of the soil and its fertility level is very important from viewpoint of an agriculturist.
Soil fertility depends not only on the presence of inorganic and organic substances, but also on the presence of various species of microorganisms which influence the qualitative composition of the soil.
The existence of soil, the store-house of Nature, furnishing substances for all plants, animals, men, and other organisms, dates Brown earth soils essay to uncountable periods, even long before the man appeared on the scene. Vast number of plants, animals and finally the man populated the earth and the soil supported them all entirely without human assistance.
That, soil is vastly complex material on the face of earth is the fundamental truth to be understood in its study. Being a common commodity, it means a different thing to a different man in different pursuit. A geologist would preferably consider it to be the outer loose crust of the earth surface; quite distinct from the bed rock lying beneath.
To a farmer, it is a medium to grow his crops in and from which the plants obtain their mechanical support and many of their nutrients. A lay man, however, is always of the opinion that soil is dust, essentially a dead material, sustaining nothing like life within it.
With regard to origin and evolution of life, it can be considered that soil is the depository of all lives within which are carried out most of the transformations that enable life to continue. Ecologically, soil is the most dynamic component lithosphere of the global environment encompassing distinct communities of organisms in its realm.
For a building engineer, the soil is a substratum on which structures can be built. But nothing could be farther from the truth, a microbiologist would say.
For him, soil appears to be a dynamic body on the surface of the earth, pulsating with life due to presence of myriads of microorganisms. Soil is a natural formation resulting from the transformation of surface rock by combination of climate, plant and animal life with ageing.
Soil is formed through following steps: Soil can also be defined as natural body which is formed at the boundary between lithosphere and biosphere by inter-chains of all factors involved in Soil formation considering both living and dead.
So soil contains not only minerals but organic humus and organo-mineral complex or chilate compounds.
The soil contains 13 elements in general out of 16 required by plants for growth. The soil becomes polluted when the quantity of 13 elements decreases or increases irregularly due to industrial effluents. Several hazardous chemicals and the mountains of wastes are ultimately dumped on the lands. Dumping of industrial and municipal wastes causes toxic substances to be leached and seep into the soil and affects the ground water course.
Modern agricultural practices introduce numerous pesticides, fungicides, bacteriocides, insecticides, biocides, fertilizers and manures, resulting in severe biological and chemical contamination of land.
Apart from all these, direct pollution of soil by deadly pathogenic organism is also of major concern. The properties of soil change with pollution and sometimes soil losses its fertility permanently.
The chemical composition of soil is much diversified and depends upon chemical composition of rock but in general the following elements are present in it. In many soils of arid areas the following water soluble salts have also been examined: Soil Layers of Earth: Soil is made up of rock which has been transformed into other layers due to vegetation and various micro and macro-organisms.
Several factors contribute to the formation of soil from the parent material.
This includes the mechanical weathering of rocks due to temperature changes and abrasion, wind, moving water, glaciers, chemical weathering activities, and lichens. Climate and time are also important in the development of soil. In extremely dry or cold climate soils develop very slowly, while in humid and warm climates soils develop more rapidly.
Under ideal climatic conditions, soft parent material may develop into 1 cm of soil within 15 years. Under poor climatic conditions, a hard parent material may require hundreds of years to develop into soil. Each horizon has a distinct texture and composition that varies with different types of soils.Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ µm in aerodynamic diameter).Black carbon consists of pure carbon in several linked forms.
It is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot.. Black carbon causes human morbidity and premature mortality. Environmental Quotes about ACTIVISM AND TAKING ACTION "For every thousand hacking at the leaves of evil, there is one striking at the root." — Henry David Thoreau "Let every individual and institution now think and act as a responsible trustee of Earth, seeking choices in ecology, economics and ethics that will provide a sustainable future, eliminate pollution, poverty and violence, awaken.
Composition and Characteristics of soil. The scientific study of soil is called pedology. Soil is composed of both organic and inorganic matter, and it is essential for life on earth to exist. The soil type that i have studied is brown earths.
Brown earths are the most common soil type in Ireland and are very fertile. Comprehensive reference page for all chapters of the Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements. Please see individual pages for the information.
Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors. Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.