Friction research paper

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Friction research paper

The pendulum uses a standardized piece of rubber FourS rubber also known as Slider 96which is set up to travel across the flooring sample for mm, mounted onto the pendulum foot.

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When the arm of the pendulum is set up to miss the flooring completely, the arm swings up to parallel from where it started, and the pointer brought along by the arm holding the rubber slider reads zero. Slippery flooring produces readings close to zero, and flooring which show higher resistance to slipping give results further from zero—high numbers such as those 36 and above indicating suitable slip resistant flooring.

Friction research paper

The United Kingdom has since had well-established slip resistance standards based on the pendulum. This test was developed for pedestrian traction by the U. National Bureau of Standards in the s and further refined in the UK.

The pendulum is also used in the U.

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Standards Australia HB There are also barefoot area recommendations based on pendulum tests with a soft rubber slider TRL rubber also known as Slider Tortus digital tribometer[ edit ] Tortus floor slip resistance tester The Tortus digital tribometer slip resistance test method is based on a proprietary or patented device, which makes it ineligible to become an ASTM standard.

It is produced in the U. The amount of friction created by this piece of rubber as it is dragged across the flooring dry or wet is recorded and calculated by the machine as it travels a predetermined path length.

An average number of dynamic coefficient of friction DCOF is calculated by the machine after its run across the flooring has been completed. This is recorded as the "DCOF", or the amount of friction necessary to drag dynamic meaning "in motion" the standardized rubber across the flooring.

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The Tortus is now the primary instrument for assessing dry slip resistance in the latest Australian slip test standard - AS The advantage of the Tortus, compared to the pendulum, is that it can perform many slip tests in a short period of time, dry and wet, using both hard and soft rubbers.

It is also difficult for the operator to influence the results of the test unlike some tribometers since an electronic button is pushed and then the test is run without any further help from the operator.

This makes it a credible forensic science device. CTIOA has endorsed a minimum dynamic coefficient of friction for level floors of 0. The BOT performs a test without human input except for the pressing of a button, making it more difficult for the operator to manipulate the results of the test.


The BOT is no longer being manufactured or serviced by the manufacturer. The BOTE, a different model, takes photos of the floor in front of itself while running the test.

The TracScan is the fifth generation of robotic tribometers originally engineered and manufactured in Germany since Variable-angle ramp[ edit ] The Variable-Angle Ramp is a German-developed method for obtaining pedestrian slip resistance values. Flooring samples are mounted horizontally on the ramp tester and an operator clad in safety boots or bare feet performs a standardized walk up and down the sample while wearing a harness to stop the operator from being injured.

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The sample is slowly inclined until the operator slips on the surface. The angle at which the subject slips is then recorded. Two operators repeat this test three times and then an average is calculated. Over safety criteria have been adopted in Germany and Australia for specific situations — swimming pool decks, commercial kitchens, restrooms, etc.

However, since it is measuring real human ambulation, it is considered by many to be the most realistic test method in existence, and the results of pendulum and drag-sled meter tests are sometimes compared with results from variable-angle ramp tests to see if the results have a strong correlation.

A good correlation with ramp test results can help a slip resistance test device become more widely used and accepted. SlipAlert slip tester[ edit ] The SlipAlert Slip Tester about to make a run SlipAlert is a matchbox car-like tribometer that is designed to mimic the readings of the pendulum.Click title or picture for full article.

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Friction research paper

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