Views of social problems Functionalism Social stability is necessary for a strong society, and adequate socialization and social integration are necessary for social stability.
Important related works include: John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: Introduction John Rawls is widely regarded as one of the most important political philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century.
He is primarily known for his theory of justice as fairnesswhich develops principles of justice to govern a modern social order.
Rawls' theory provides a framework that explains the significance, in a society assumed to consist of free and equal persons, of political and personal liberties, of equal opportunity, and cooperative arrangements that benefit the more and the less advantaged members of society.
Darrel Moellendorf writes that Rawls' conception of justice, like any conception of justice whatsoever, is an associational conception.
It is about relationships between members of an association. Rawls is chiefly concerned with the political association known as the modern nation-state. Moellendorf and other defenders of "cosmopolitan justice" apply the approach Rawls developed for the nation-state to the global community, which may be understood as an economic association even if there is no effective international political association.
More may be said later about cosmopolitan justice. Here the important point is that Rawls' initial concern with justice is related to relationships between persons within an association.
Rawls' theory urges us to conceive of society "as a fair system of cooperation over time, from one generation to the next.
Two moral powers John Rawls develops a conception of justice from the perspective that persons are free and equal. Their freedom consists in their possession of the two moral powers, "a capacity for a sense of justice and for a conception of the good.
A sense of justice is "the capacity to understand, to apply, and to act from the public conception of justice which characterizes the fair terms of cooperation.
A conception of the good includes "a conception of what is valuable in human life. These include moral philosophies like utilitarianism and philosophical systems such as Kantianism, Platonism and Stoicism.
They also include religious doctrines such as Augustinianism, Thomism, orthodox Judaism, etc. Comprehensive Doctrines A moral conception is comprehensive when it includes "conceptions of what is of value in human life, and ideals of personal character, as well as ideals of friendship and of familial and associational relationships, and much else that is to inform our conduct, and in the limit to our life as a whole.
A conception is fully comprehensive if it covers all recognized values and virtues within one rather precisely articulated system; whereas a conception is only partially comprehensive when it comprises a number of, but by no means all, nonpolitical values and virtues and is rather loosely articulated.
A comprehensive doctrine may include a political conception of justice but a political conception of justice falls far short of addressing questions of interest to the comprehensive doctrine.
Thus, a political conception may address whether we are to respect freedom of speech and assembly for other comprehensive doctrines than our own, but it will not address the question of precisely how we should conduct ourselves so as to secure our happiness or eternal salvation. A political conception conceives of persons as having the two moral powers mentioned above, as being responsible for their actions, etc.
Recall, as mentioned above, that Rawls conceives of "society as a fair system of cooperation over time, from one generation to the next.Ethics and Leadership: How Personal Ethics Produce Effective Leaders Jessica Waggoner personal ethics are built from virtues, morals, values, and principles.
Then, how ethics eventually instill the social responsibility missing in today’s culture. I.
The Staircase to Ethics. Modern constructivism is represented by several distinct movements: radical constructivism, personal construct theory, hermeneutic constructivism, and social constructivism.
Unformatted text preview: How is this construct related to my own social perspectives?My personal constructs are related to my social perspectives because based on my own personal experiences I do not trust people and my . Could someone explain the concept of personal constructs? What is a personal construct?
How are personal constructs related to social perspectives? Marriage, Gender, Manners, Religion a perspective on social constructions.
I have 3 top pet peeve or 3 related, grouped constructs that are very disturbing to me. It bothers me that people don't seem to be aware that these are social constructs - built on concepts, and are NOT inherent in the way they're so often explained by authorities.
CONSTRUCTIVISM IN THEORY AND PRACTICE: TOWARD A BETTER UNDERSTANDING James. M.
Applefield, Richard Huber & perspectives, new conceptualizations and new ways of thinking about a topic, large or small. Through the cognitive give and take of social interactions, one constructs personal knowledge. In addition, the context in which learning.