And succeeding in these rigorous programs shows students they can succeed in college.
According to Herreid () and the experiences of Harris and Johnson, faculty not trained in establishing non-traditional goals and objectives, implementation methodologies, and assessment techniques are not effective in utilizing these new strategies in the classroom. Search using a saved search preference or by selecting one or more content areas and grade levels to view standards, related Eligible Content, assessments, and materials and resources. Assessing Writing. Background and Theory. Works in this section will provide the reader with a foundation in basic assessment theory as well as the historical background necessary to fully appreciate the current theory and practices in writing assessment.
Automated conversion, however, from simplified to traditional is not straightforward because there is not always a one-to-one mapping of a simplified character to a traditional character. One simplified character may equate to many traditional characters. As a result, a computer can be used for the bulk of the conversion but will still need final checking by a human.
Reform of Chinese characters" simplified Chinese: He cited the inability of those educated in Hong Kong or Taiwan to read material published on the mainland, and vice versa, as a great disadvantage of simplified Chinese.
He also cited the ability to communicate, not just with Chinese peoples of various regions, but also with people from across the Chinese cultural sphere — countries such as Japan and Vietnam — as a great advantage of the written Chinese language that should not be undermined by excessive simplification.
To some, the new 'heartless' love character is an attack on Confucianismwhich emphasizes non traditional writing assessment virtues of filial piety and humanity in relationships so as to maintain a harmonious society.
They have alleged that simplified characters were arbitrarily schematized and then imposed by the PRC on its people with the intention of subverting and eradicating selected elements of traditional Chinese culture, in order to carry out what the PRC viewed as necessary revolutionary modernization.
These critics point out that many of the fundamental characteristics underlying Chinese characters, including radicals as well as etymological and phonetic elements, were deliberately omitted in their simplified form at least partly for this reason i.
Generally, the more ancient the text, the more numerous the phonetic loans, since separate characters were slowly introduced as the written language evolved, in order to disambiguate these loans. The merging of several traditional characters into one simplified character e.
Personal names of historical individuals are especially problematic. Against this, proponents of simplified characters respond that it is uneconomical to introduce high school students, already burdened by schoolwork, to a new character set for the sole purpose of teaching the classical language.
Moreover, history and language majors in colleges and universities can gradually learn to read texts set in traditional characters, as the need arises. Nevertheless, classical texts set in traditional Chinese can be hard to find in mainland Chinese bookstores.
Literacy Arguments for simplified characters Proponents feel that simplified characters with fewer strokes make learning easier. Although Taiwan, which uses traditional Chinese characters, has a better literacy rate, proponents point out that with a population 50 times larger and landmass times bigger, the illiteracy in mainland China is much more difficult to eradicate.
Many studies have been conducted to prove, contrary to cultural prejudice, that simplified characters are easier to learn than traditional ones. Even if it is possible to correlate the adoption of simplified Chinese characters with increases in literacy rates, given the consistently high literacy rates in Taiwan and Hong Kong, not to mention the fact that correlation does not imply causationsuch correlations do not prove that the simplification of characters alone is determinant of literacy success any more than the many other factors involved in cultural change and educational reform.
Classical Chinese mainly used one character to form one word, which made it very common that one character had multiple meanings and multiple pronunciation: Context is vital to determining the meaning of a certain character in Classical Chinese.
After the early s' Vernacular Chinese movement, words were mainly formed by multiple characters mostly twoand today one word usually has only one meaning: Context is not necessary to determine the meaning of a certain word. Merging characters with few meanings in identical or similar pronunciation, actually does not make reading more difficult when using Vernacular Chinese: Instead, simplification simply reduces the number of characters one would need to learn for modern life.
Similarly, some simplified characters create more confusion. Thus, the Board later re-introduced the character.
Supporters of traditional characters often use this example in against the use of simplified Chinese, especially when it comes down to mergers of characters in names of historical heroes, scholars, philosophers, and political figures. They also report trouble in flight reservations when traveling in and out of mainland China due to the mergers of characters.
Professor Wang, at Beijing University of Education, also the Vice President of Chinese Language Association, and an official of Ministry of Education of China, agreed and criticized that some characters were oversimplified during the simplification campaign, and thus more difficult to learn, apply, and use.
Wang particularly pointed at merged characters borne with these problems. Proponents of simplification claim this makes them easier to write. This is similar to the practice of using abbreviations in informal written English i.
Traditional characters Opponents say that the speed advantage of simplified Chinese becomes less relevant in the computer age. Most IMEs use phoneme -based input, such as pinyin romanization or bopomofowhile others are grapheme -based, such as cangjie and wubi.
These have mainly sidelined the speed problems in handwritten Chinese, as traditional and simplified Chinese input methods have the same input speed, especially with phoneme-based IMEs. Furthermore, even when it comes to handwriting, a majority of people resort to semi-cursive script to reduce strokes and save time.Publishers Jump to Services: This survey has no authority other than my own ornery wish to help aspiring writers make progress; I'm really a writer, not a surveyor.
Primary Resources - free worksheets, lesson plans and teaching ideas for primary and elementary teachers. An examination of the author's collected data reveals that the outcomes of the introductory composition classes consistently sustained only one part of her tripartite hypothesis: that a collaborative writing project at midterm does indeed promote students' considerably more positive assessment of the value of the writing course.
Why Talk About Non-Traditional Assessment Models?
When faculty and staff approach the Office for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment for assistance with planning their annual assessment projects, we tend to suggest certain strategies that do not always resonate well with them. – ITINERARY – ONE-ON-ONE MANUSCRIPT ASSESSMENT – PITCH AN AGENT – FORENSIC CRIME SCENE EXCURSION – THE INDIE ALTERNATIVE PANEL ITINERARY The organisers anticipate announcing the itinerary in February.
For an idea of what to expect see the PROGRAMME pages of past websites.. ONE-ON-ONE MANUSCRIPT ASSESSMENT. Using Non-Traditional Assessments. Unfortunately, schools are becoming more and more locked in to using summative assessment, standardized measures of student achievement, multiple-choice tests, and other traditional forms of written assessment.