How the Bitcoin protocol actually works by Michael Nielsen on December 6, Many thousands of articles have been written purporting to explain Bitcoin, the online, peer-to-peer currency. Most of those articles give a hand-wavy account of the underlying cryptographic protocol, omitting many details. Even those articles which delve deeper often gloss over crucial points. My aim in this post is to explain the major ideas behind the Bitcoin protocol in a clear, easily comprehensible way.
I am not a pharmacologist. I am not a researcher. I am not a statistician. This is not medical advice. This is really weird and you should not take it too seriously until it has been confirmed] I. Are these any good? I looked at four of the largest such databases — Drugs.
Then I correlated them with one another to see if the five sites mostly agreed. Correlations between CrazyMeds and DrugLib were generally small or negative.
So I threw out the two offending sites and kept Drugs. I normalized all the data, then took the weighted average of all three sites.
Everyone secretly knows Nardil and Parnate the two commonly-used drugs in the MAOI class are excellent antidepressants1. Likewise, I feel pretty good to see that Serzone, which I recently defended, is number five. The table also matches the evidence from chemistry — drugs with similar molecular structure get similar ratings, as do drugs with similar function.
This is, I think, a good list. Which is too bad, because it makes the next part that much more terrifying. There is a sixth major Internet database of drug ratings. It is called RateRxand it differs from the other five in an important way: RateRx has a modest but respectable sample size — the drugs on my list got between 32 and 70 doctor reviews.
So patients pretty much agree on which drugs are good and which are bad? Doctor reviews on RateRx correlated at The negative relationship is nonsignificant, but that just means that at best, doctor reviews are totally uncorrelated with patient consensus.
This has an obvious but very disturbing corollary. But total number of online reviews makes a pretty good proxy.
After all, the more patients are using a drug, the more are likely to review it. Cymbalta was also the best selling antidepressant of So number of reviews seems to be a decent correlate for amount a drug is used.
But amount the drug gets used correlates negatively with patient rating of the drug So the more patients like a drug, the less likely it is to be prescribed2. Anyone familiar with these medications reading the table above has probably already noticed this one, but I figured I might as well make it official.
I correlated the average rating of each drug with the year it came on the market. The correlation was That is, the newer a drug was, the less patients liked it3. This pattern absolutely jumps out of the data. In contrast, last-place winner Viibryd came out insecond-to-last place winner Abilify got its depression indication inand third-to-last place winner Brintellix is as recent as What the hell is going on with these data?
I would like to dismiss this as confounded, but I have to admit that any reasonable person would expect the confounders to go the opposite way. But these are precisely the depressions that are hardest to treat. Imagine you are testing the fighting ability of three people via ten boxing matches.
You would expect this test to be biased in favor of Alice and against Carol.From the data, we estimate that the probability of voting Republican is 13/(13+16), or %. We put out our press release that the Democrats are going to win by over 10 points; but, when the election comes around, it turns out they actually lose by 10 points.
That certainly reflects poorly on us. One-Way Analysis of Variance The method used today for comparisons of three or more groups is called analysis of variance (ANOVA). This method has the advantage of testing whether there are any differences between the groups with a single probability associated with the test.
Box and Cox () developed the transformation. Estimation of any Box-Cox parameters is by maximum likelihood. Box and Cox () offered an example in which the data had the form of survival times but the underlying biological structure was of hazard rates, and the transformation identified this.
One-Way Analysis of Variance with SPSS. Craft up to a one page double-spaced write up of the statistical results (include any additional pages needed for any APA tables or graphs and the SPSS syntax and output) in which you do the following: State the statistical assumptions of this test.
d. Variance within each group is the same 2-In ANOVA, _____ groups variation is defined as the variability of the observations belonging to the same group.
Select one: a. Within b. Between c. Total d. None of the above 3-You have data on 58 patients who used one . Excel Data Analysis Tool: Excel’s Anova: Single Factor data analysis tool can also be used to perform analysis of variance.
We show the output for this tool in Example 2 below. We show the output for this tool in Example 2 below.