Peeling Back the Truth on Bananas Courtesy of Equal Exchange Bananas are the most popular fruit in the world, with more than billion consumed annually. Research began in the early s to develop a disease-resistant banana, which led to the introduction of the Cavendish banana—the kind we find in the produce department of grocery stores today. The production of bananas for export was part and parcel of 19th— and 20th-century U.
Today we are publishing the second and final part in which he concentrates mainly on the Marxist concept of exploitation. Exploitation Workers are exploited under capitalism. What does this mean? The law of value analyses the circulation of commodities as an exchange of equivalents.
Marx poses the problem this way Capital Vol. Moneybags, who is as yet only an embryo capitalist, must buy his commodities at their value and must sell them at their value; and nevertheless at the end of the process he must draw more value out of circulation than he puts into it at starting…This is the nut we have to crack!
And capitalists like the ballpoint magnate Reynolds probably did operate with the notion of a standard mark-up. However Reynolds and the other market leaders had to drastically revise their notion of what that mark-up might be as they were confronted with the prospect of a full-scale price war in the s, as the technology for producing ballpoints became standardised.
Capitalists continually try to rip each other and the The exploitation of labour class off by pushing up their prices, and therefore their profits. But first they come up against limits imposed by the law of value, the regulator of their system.
Secondly marking-up prices is quite simply a zero-sum game for the boss class as a whole. What one gains, the other loses. It just cannot explain the steady unremitting flow of new income into the pockets of the rich, as they sit at home and wait for the dividends to plop on to their doormats.
The historic dispossession of the ancestors of the modern working class, such as peasants and artisans, from their means of making a living gives the capitalists the whip hand.
Marx goes on, "If, then, the owner of money is to transform his money into capital, he must find in the commodity market a free worker, free in a double sense.
The worker must be able to dispose of his labour power as his own commodity; and, on the other hand he must have no other commodities for sale, must be 'free' from everything that is essential for the realisation of his labour power.
We have all been led to believe we are paid for the work we put in. After all, if we work overtime or weekends, we expect to get paid more.
If we're put on short time or laid off, we expect to lose money. Some of us are on piece work, where what's in our pay packet is directly linked to the effort we put in.
That's certainly the way it looks.
We'll be investigating the wages form later on. But Marx's discovery was that capitalists don't buy a determinate lump of work done. What they buy is a capacity, and they have to sweat the most out of it they can. Modern bourgeois economists use an efficiency wage theory to explain why some workers are paid more than the minimum market rate.
It's because the bosses want to hang on to scarce skills.
In turn workers may accord the firm some loyalty and commitment if they think they have a secure future there. Efficiency wage theory accepts that what the boss is getting is a capacity.
It also argues that productivity can depend on the wage level paid. This turns neo-classical theory which attempts to relate wages to productivity, so 'we get paid what we're worth' completely on its head. Marx explains, "I use the term labour power or capacity for labour, to denote the aggregate of those bodily and mental capabilities existing in a human being, which he exercises whenever he produces a use-value of any kind"… "The value of labour power, like that of every other commodity, is determined by the labour time necessary for the production, and consequently for the reproduction as well, of this specific article as well.The Dark Side of Chocolate is a documentary film about the exploitation and slavetrading of African children to harvest chocolate still occurring nearly ten years after the cocoa industry pledged to end it.
Dozens of Nepalese migrant labourers have died in Qatar in recent weeks and thousands more are enduring appalling labour abuses, a Guardian investigation has found, raising serious questions about.
The 19th ICLS (International Conference of Labour Statisticians) in , adopted the Resolution II concerning further work on statistics of forced labour recommending that the Office set up a working group with the aim of sharing best practices on forced labour surveys in order to encourage further.
This is the second and final part of Mick Brooks' article on the Labour Theory of Value, in which he concentrates mainly on the Marxist concept of exploitation Last week we published the first part of Mick Brooks' article on the Labour Theory of Value An introduction to Marx's Labour Theory of Value.
Oct 02, · Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. The Global Estimates of Modern Slavery focus on two main issues: forced labour and forced marriage. The estimate of forced labour comprises forced labour in the private economy, forced sexual exploitation of adults and commercial sexual exploitation of children, and state-imposed forced labour.
Structural Adjustment programs of the IMF and World Bank have led to a race to the bottom, where standards of living are continuously reduced. Labor, as one example of this, gets cheaper and cheaper which benefits the multinational companies, but not the workers themselves.