Many historians, poets, and writers have been mesmerized by his conquests. But while most talk of his invasions and exploits, you rarely hear or read why he invaded the mighty Persian Empire in BC in the first place. Portrait of Alexander the Great. Marble, Hellenistic artwork, 2nd-1st century BC.
Ruins of the Gate of All NationsPersepolis. Ruins of the ApadanaPersepolis. Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the ApadanaPersepolis.
Ruins of the TacharaPersepolis. The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent. He was better able, through more benign policies, to reconcile his subjects to Persian rule; the longevity of his empire was one result. Since he became ill and died before, or while, leaving Egyptstories developed, as related by Herodotusthat he was struck down for impiety against the ancient Egyptian deities.
The winner, Darius Ibased his claim on membership in a collateral line of the Achaemenid Empire. He improved the extensive road system, and it is during his reign that mention is first made of the Royal Road shown on mapa great highway stretching all the way from Susa to Sardis with posting stations at regular intervals.
Major reforms took place under Darius. Coinagein the form of the daric gold coin and the shekel silver coin was standardized coinage had already been invented over a century before in Lydia c.
The Old Persian language appears in royal inscriptions, written in a specially adapted version of the cuneiform script.
Under Cyrus the Great and Darius Ithe Persian Empire eventually became the largest empire in human history up until that point, ruling and administrating over most of the then known world,  as well as spanning the continents of EuropeAsia, and Africa.
The greatest achievement was the empire itself. In the late sixth century BC, Darius launched his European campaign, in which he defeated the Paeoniansconquered Thraceand subdued all coastal Greek cities, as well as defeating the European Scythians around the Danube river.
This led to an Achaemenid campaign against mainland Greece known as the Greco-Persian Warswhich lasted the first half of the 5th century BC, and is known as one of the most important wars in European history. At a crucial moment in the war, about half of mainland Greece was overrun by the Persians, including all territories to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth  however, this was also turned out in a Greek victory, following the battles of Plataea and Salamisby which Persia lost its footholds in Europe, and eventually withdrew from it.
However, after a string of Greek victories the Persians were forced to withdraw thus losing control of MacedoniaThrace and Ionia. A panoramic view of Persepolis.
His empire was the Seleucid Empire. Greek language, philosophy, and art came with the colonists. During the Seleucid era, Greek became the common tongue of diplomacy and literature throughout the empire.persian empire persian history olmstead persians greek ancient greeks subject comprehensive culture persia perspective date iran iranian overview period alexander detailed events Showing of 17 reviews/5(17).
At its height the Achaemenid Empire, with its power centered in this city, reached from the Nile and Greece eastward to India. Dominating the major travel routes between East and West, it was the meeting ground of the great cultures of the ancient world.
This is the unabridged version of this book, and as such it is very comprehensive. It was published in (the paperback version in , but I do not believe that the book was updated between and 59 as the author died before the publication date). The beginning of the Persian empire is set at different times by different scholars, but the real force behind the expansion was Cyrus II, aka Cyrus the Great, in the mid-sixth century BC.
Until the time of Alexander the Great, it was the largest empire in history. The start of the 5th century BCE was the peak of the Persian Empire—an empire containing nearly 50 million subjects (approximately 44% of the world’s total population at that time).
The stage was set for the mighty struggle with the comparatively much smaller city-states of Greece. Jan 25, · Watch video · The Persian Empire is the name given to a series of dynasties centered in modern-day Iran that spanned several centuries—from the .